Samurai, Band 1: Der Weg des Kämpfers: felixgerena.com: Bradford, Chris, Ströle, Wolfram: Bücher. Samurai ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die Bezeichnung Bushi üblich. Heute wird Samurai einzig für den Kriegeradel jener Zeit verwendet und nicht. Samurai (jap. 侍 oder seltener 士) ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die.
Samurai WorkshopJapanische Samurai – die Kriegerklasse des japanischen Mittelalters – sind oftmals der Stoff von Filmen und anderen Werken der japanischen. Samurai ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die Bezeichnung Bushi üblich. Heute wird Samurai einzig für den Kriegeradel jener Zeit verwendet und nicht. Samurai (jap. 侍 oder seltener 士) ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die.
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The new government created a conscripted army in Some of the officers were drawn from the ranks of former samurai, but more of the warriors found work as police officers.
In , angry ex-samurai revolted against the Meiji in the Satsuma Rebellion , but they later lost the Battle of Shiroyama, bringing the era of the samurai to an end.
The culture of the samurai was grounded in the concept of bushido , or the way of the warrior, whose central tenets are honor and freedom from fear of death.
A samurai was legally entitled to cut down any commoner who failed to honor him—or her—properly. The warrior was believed to be imbued with bushido spirit.
He or she was expected to fight fearlessly and die honorably rather than surrender in defeat. Out of this disregard for death came the Japanese tradition of seppuku , in which defeated warriors—and disgraced government officials—would commit suicide with honor by disemboweling themselves with a short sword.
Early samurai were archers, fighting on foot or horseback with extremely long bows yumi , and used swords mainly for finishing off wounded enemies.
After the Mongol invasions of and , the samurai began to make greater use of swords, poles topped by curved blades called naginata, and spears.
Samurai warriors wore two swords, the katana, and the wakizashi, which were banned from use by non-samurai in the late 16th century.
Share Flipboard Email. Kallie Szczepanski. History Expert. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture.
She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U. In late , over a period of six weeks, Imperial Japanese Army forces brutally murdered hundreds of thousands of people—including both soldiers and civilians—in the Chinese city of Nanking or Nanjing.
The horrific events are known as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Hirohito was emperor of Japan from until his death in He took over at a time of rising democratic sentiment, but his country soon turned toward ultra-nationalism and militarism.
During World War II , Japan attacked nearly all of its Asian The Russo-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from to Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China.
The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the Shrewd at The explosion immediately killed an estimated 80, people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation A treaty with Japan in had assured free immigration, Tokyo began life as a village known as Edo.
Live TV. This Day In History. HISTORY Podcasts. History at Home. Shows This Day In History Schedule Topics Stories. Early Samurai During the Heian Period , the samurai were the armed supporters of wealthy landowners—many of whom left the imperial court to seek their own fortunes after being shut out of power by the powerful Fujiwara clan.
Japan in Chaos: the Ashikaga Shogunate The strain of defeating two Mongol invasions at the end of the 13th century weakened the Kamakura Shogunate, which fell to a rebellion led by Ashikaga Takauji.
Although still allowed to wear the two swords emblematic of their social position, most samurai were forced to become civil bureaucrats or take up some trade during the years of peace that prevailed under the Tokugawa shogunate military dictatorship.
Moreover, the rise of the cities and the expansion of a merchant economy during early 18th-century Japan led to the flowering of a vibrant urban culture , which eventually superseded the austere life-style of the samurai.
At the same time, the economic position of the samurai, who lived primarily on fixed stipends, was being eroded. In spite of their high social rank, a growing number of samurai families suffered impoverishment by the end of the Tokugawa period.
Lower-ranking samurai, eager for advancement and realizing a new sense of national purpose in the face of encroachment by the Western powers during the midth century, took part in the movement against the Tokugawa regime that resulted in the Meiji Restoration of The samurai class lost its privileged position when feudalism was officially abolished in Discontented former samurai rose in rebellion several times during the s, but these revolts were quickly suppressed by the newly established national army.
Samurai Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.
The wife, or okugatasama meaning: one who remains in the home , was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly.
For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu lit.
There were women who actively engaged in battles alongside male samurai in Japan, although most of these female warriors were not formal samurai.
A samurai's daughter's greatest duty was political marriage. These women married members of enemy clans of their families to form a diplomatic relationship.
These alliances were stages for many intrigues, wars and tragedies throughout Japanese history. A woman could divorce her husband if he did not treat her well and also if he was a traitor to his wife's family.
A famous case was that of Oda Tokuhime Daughter of Oda Nobunaga ; irritated by the antics of her mother-in-law, Lady Tsukiyama the wife of Tokugawa Ieyasu , she was able to get Lady Tsukiyama arrested on suspicion of communicating with the Takeda clan then a great enemy of Nobunaga and the Oda clan.
Ieyasu also arrested his own son, Matsudaira Nobuyasu , who was Tokuhime's husband, because Nobuyasu was close to his mother Lady Tsukiyama.
To assuage his ally Nobunaga, Ieyasu had Lady Tsukiyama executed in and that same year ordered his son to commit seppuku to prevent him from seeking revenge for the death of his mother.
Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty. Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children and perhaps servants as well , and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof.
Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class, required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children.
Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline. Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men.
Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household. This does not mean that women in the samurai class were always powerless.
Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions. Throughout history, several women of the samurai class have acquired political power and influence, even though they have not received these privileges de jure.
Nene , wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times, and Yodo-dono , his concubine, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.
Tachibana Ginchiyo was chosen to lead the Tachibana clan after her father's death. Yamauchi Chiyo , wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife.
According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse, on which he rode to many victories.
The fact that Chiyo though she is better known as "Wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo" is held in such high esteem for her economic sense is illuminating in the light of the fact that she never produced an heir and the Yamauchi clan was succeeded by Kazutoyo's younger brother.
The source of power for women may have been that samurai left their finances to their wives. As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole.
Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness.
Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics.
Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period. Kasuga no Tsubone fighting robbers - Adachi Ginko c.
Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi , ca. Japanese woman preparing for jigai female version of seppuku. Yuki no Kata defending Anotsu castle.
One of the most prominent figures among them was Kim Yeocheol, who was granted the Japanese name Wakita Naokata and promoted to Commissioner of Kanazawa city.
The English sailor and adventurer William Adams — was among the first Westerners to receive the dignity of samurai.
He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living".
Letters [ who? He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters [ who? Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn , a Dutch colleague of Adams on their ill-fated voyage to Japan in the ship De Liefde, was also given similar privileges by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Joosten likewise became a hatamoto samurai  and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo. On a return journey from Batavia , Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground.
Di Chiara was also tortured and eventually became an apostate as well. After the Shimabara Rebellion in , he arrived on the island of Oshima and was immediately arrested in June There are descendants of samurai in foreign countries.
They are descendants of the first Japanese official envoy to Spain which included Hasekura Tsunenaga around — Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival.
As far back as the seventh century Japanese warriors wore a form of lamellar armor , which evolved into the armor worn by the samurai.
These early samurai armors were made from small individual scales known as kozane. The kozane were made from either iron or leather and were bound together into small strips, and the strips were coated with lacquer to protect the kozane from water.
In the 16th century a new type of armor started to become popular after the advent of firearms, new fighting tactics by increasing the scale of battles and the need for additional protection and high productivity.
The kozane dou , which was made of small individual scales, was replaced by itazane , which had larger iron plate or platy leather joined together.
Itazane can also be said to replace a row of individual kozanes with a single steel plate or platy leather. This new armor, which used itazane , was referred to as tosei-gusoku gusoku , or modern armor.
The back piece had multiple uses, such as for a flag bearing. The helmet kabuto was an important part of the samurai's armor. It was paired with a shikoro and fukigaeshi for protection of the head and neck.
Muromachi period , 15th century, Tokyo National Museum , Important Cultural Property. Toyotomi Hidetsugu 's gusoku armour, Azuchi-Momoyama period , 16thth century, Suntory Museum of Art.
A lightweight portable folding tatami armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta.
The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing. A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour uma yoroi or bagai.
During the existence of the samurai, two opposite types of organization reigned. The first type were recruits-based armies: at the beginning, during the Nara period , samurai armies relied on armies of Chinese-type recruits and towards the end in infantry units composed of ashigaru.
The second type of organization was that of a samurai on horseback who fought individually or in small groups.
At the beginning of the contest, a series of bulbous-headed arrows were shot, which buzzed in the air. The purpose of these shots was to call the kami to witness the displays of courage that were about to unfold.
At the beginning of the samurai battles, it was an honor to be the first to enter battle. This changed in the Sengoku period with the introduction of the arquebus.
In the middle of the contest, some samurai decided to get off the horse and seek to cut off the head of a worthy rival. This act was considered an honor.
In addition, through it they gained respect among the military class. Most of the battles were not resolved in the manner so idealist exposed above, but most wars were won through surprise attacks, such as night raids, fires, etc.
The renowned samurai Minamoto no Tametomo said:. According to my experience, there is nothing more advantageous when it comes to crushing the enemy than a night attack [ If we set fire to three of the sides and close the passage through the room, those who flee from the flames will be shot down by arrows, and those who seek to escape from them will not be able to flee from the flames.
Cutting off the head of a worthy rival on the battlefield was a source of great pride and recognition. There was a whole ritual to beautify the severed heads: first they were washed and combed,  and once this was done, the teeth were blackened by applying a dye called ohaguro.
During Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea, the number of severed heads of the enemies to be sent to Japan was such that for logistical reasons only the nose was sent.
These were covered with salt and shipped in wooden barrels. These barrels were buried in a burial mound near the "Great Buddha" of Hideyoshi, where they remain today under the wrong name of mimizuka or "burial mound.
During the Azuchi-Momoyama period and thanks to the introduction of firearms, combat tactics changed dramatically. The military formations adopted had poetic names, among which are: .
Each child who grew up in a samurai family was expected to be a warrior when he grew up, so much of his childhood was spent practicing different martial arts.
A complete samurai should be skilled at least in the use of the sword kenjutsu , the bow and arrow kyujutsu , the spear sojutsu , yarijutsu , the halberd naginatajutsu and subsequently the use of firearms houjutsu.
Similarly, they were instructed in the use of these weapons while riding a horse. They were also expected to know how to swim and dive. The combat methods that were developed and perfected are very diverse, among which are: .
Most samurai were bound by a code of honor and were expected to set an example for those below them. Despite the rampant romanticism of the 20th century, samurai could be disloyal and treacherous e.
Samurai were usually loyal to their immediate superiors, who in turn allied themselves with higher lords. These loyalties to the higher lords often shifted; for example, the high lords allied under Toyotomi Hideyoshi were served by loyal samurai, but the feudal lords under them could shift their support to Tokugawa, taking their samurai with them.
Jidaigeki literally historical drama has always been a staple program on Japanese movies and television. The programs typically feature a samurai.
Samurai films and westerns share a number of similarities, and the two have influenced each other over the years.
One of Japan's most renowned directors, Akira Kurosawa , greatly influenced western film-making. George Lucas ' Star Wars series incorporated many stylistic traits pioneered by Kurosawa, and Star Wars: A New Hope takes the core story of a rescued princess being transported to a secret base from Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress.
Kurosawa was inspired by the works of director John Ford , and in turn Kurosawa's works have been remade into westerns such as Seven Samurai into The Magnificent Seven and Yojimbo into A Fistful of Dollars.
There is also a 26 episode anime adaptation Samurai 7 of Seven Samurai. Along with film, literature containing samurai influences are seen as well.
As well as influence from American Westerns, Kurosawa also adapted two of Shakespeare's plays as sources for samurai movies: Throne of Blood was based on Macbeth , and Ran was based on King Lear.
Most common are historical works where the protagonist is either a samurai or former samurai or another rank or position who possesses considerable martial skill.
Eiji Yoshikawa is one of the most famous Japanese historical novelists. His retellings of popular works, including Taiko , Musashi and The Tale of the Heike , are popular among readers for their epic narratives and rich realism in depicting samurai and warrior culture.
Examples are Samurai Champloo , Shigurui , Requiem from the Darkness , Muramasa: The Demon Blade , and Afro Samurai.
Samurai-like characters are not just restricted to historical settings, and a number of works set in the modern age, and even the future, include characters who live, train and fight like samurai.
Some of these works have made their way to the west, where it has been increasing in popularity with America.
In the 21st century, samurai have become more popular in America. Through various media, producers and writers have been capitalizing on the notion that Americans admire the samurai lifestyle.
The animated series, Afro Samurai , became well-liked in American popular culture because of its blend of hack-and-slash animation and gritty urban music.
In , the animated series debuted on American cable television on the Spike TV channel. The series was produced for American viewers which "embodies the trend Because of its popularity, Afro Samurai was adopted into a full feature animated film and also became titles on gaming consoles such as the PlayStation 3 and Xbox.
Not only has the samurai culture been adopted into animation and video games, it can also be seen in comic books. The television series Power Rangers Samurai adapted from Samurai Sentai Shinkenger is inspired by the way of the samurai.
There are a variety of festivals held in Japan. Some festivals are seasonal celebrations that were adopted from China and imbued with Japanese cultural values and stories.
Some examples of these festivals include the Hagi Jidai Festival, Matsue Warrior Procession, Kenshin Festival, Sendai Aoba Festival, Battle of Sekigahara Festival, and the Shingen-ko Festival.
The Hagi Jidai Festival takes place in the fall in Hagi, Yamaguchi Prefecture. This festival started in the Edo period as a way for the people of Hagi to show their appreciation to the God of Kanaya Tenmangu Shrine.
The Matsue Warrior Procession is a festival in Matsue, Shimane Prefecture. One unique event in particular is the reenactment of the battle of Kawanakajima where performers in the samurai armor portray the events with swords and spears.
The festival is 3 days long. There are more than , visitors per festival. Usually a famous Japanese celebrity plays the part of Takeda Shingen.
Ordinary people can participate too after applying. It is one of the biggest historical reenactments in Japan.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Samurai disambiguation. Military nobility of pre-industrial Japan. See also: Mongol invasions of Japan.
See also: Japanese invasions of Korea Main article: Late Tokugawa shogunate. See also: Bushido and Kiri-sute gomen. Main article: Onna-bugeisha.
Main article: List of foreign-born samurai in Japan. Antique Japanese wakizashi. Japanese arrow stand with a pair of Yumi bows. Main article: Japanese armour.
Further information: Samurai cinema. See also: List of samurai. The future of post-human martial arts a preface to a new theory of the body and spirit of warriors.
Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.Inthis squabbling erupted into the decade-long Onin War, in which thousands died and Kyoto was burned to the ground. In general, samurai, aristocrats, Kathrin Kühnel priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji. Sound Mix: Mono. Wiener Robert Favart